The biting and stinging animals are different and you have to deal with each problem in accordance with the biology of the biting or stinging animal. Therefore, it is important to start by determining what kind of animal you are dealing with.
If you catch the animal in the act the matter is clear. But often the animal is gone, or it is so small that it is not detected. In these cases, you only have the more or less characteristic skin symptoms to rely on, and they can rarely be used for a certain diagnosis.
The animals, however, as evidenced by the following chapters, each have their own very specific way of life. They can only behave in certain ways. This means that there will always be a number of circumstances, which can be used to confirm or rule out the suspicion, or even completely eliminate certain options.
In many cases, control and prevention is not possible or would be disproportionate in relation to the discomfort. This applies to most of the animals you are bitten or stung by outdoors.
However, when dealing with animals such as head lice, pubic lice, cat fleas, itch mites or fur mites, eradication and control is almost always necessary.