International trade

There are general guidelines and rules to import of animals, insects and plants. They are primarily designed to prevent pests in plants, but some of the species mentioned in this book are also mentioned in the so-called quarantine lists. Quarantine lists from virtually every country in the world can be found in different databases on the Internet. For example the PQR database from EPPO, which is freely downloadable. Species listed on quarantine lists shall not be imported into that country. The so-called list II species are also undesirable, but may be introduced by agreements of extermination etc. There may in fact be a huge gap between official requirements and what is done in practice. The trend is towards more stringent requirements as import countries may require more than the official requirements, never less. As evidence that the requirements for specific food pests are met, some countries require that the product is accompanied by an international phytosanitary certificate.

Allergies: One can examine whether food pests mentioned in this book can cause allergic reactions to people. This is done on the Internet at “Allergome – A Database of Allergenic Molecules,” on Here it is possible to search the Latin pest names.