From outside, through windows and doors: Gnats, mosquitoes Stable flies Thrips From birds’ nests or nesting boxes: Bird fleas Poultry mites Pigeon ticks Martin bugs Forest flies From dog or cat, or from their quarters: Fleas Certain mites From other humans: Itch mite Head lice Body lice Crab lice Human fleas From foodstuffs: Certain mites […]
With prolegs on the abdomen mealworms or caterpillars Without prolegs With powerful, functional legs Without legs, or with small rudimentary legs With dense hairs. The rear end with a tuft of hairs dermestid larvae With scattered hairs, or naked certain beetle larvae The larva is curled The larva is not curled With small legs certain […]
Wings well developed………….. N.B. Front wings may be developed as ‘shields’ which cover the flight wings when these are not in use. Wings lacking……. Wings small, with hairy fringes. Small animals, less than 2 mm Thrips. All the wings transparent, possibly with a few hairs Front pair of wings not transparent With a single pair […]
Abdomen with distinct joints Abdomen without distinct joints Abdomen elongated, forming tail with sting scorpions. Abdomen not ending in tail.. Small animals (less than 5 mm), With claws false scorpions. Larger animals with very long legs harvestmen. Body clearly divided into two parts spiders. Very small animals with undivided body mites.
Without legs With three pairs of legs. Often with wings insects N.B. Newly hatched mites also have three pairs of legs, but they are extremely small, under 1 mm. With four pairs of legs spiders, mites, scorpions etc. With more than four pairs of legs. It may be a slug slugs It may be a […]
( Latin: Siphonaptera ) Fleas (Siphonaptera) constitute an order of insects. Their biology is similar to that of flies. Some researchers believe that fleas were once a kind of flies, who lost their wings and adapted to a life as bloodsuckers on birds and mammals. Fleas are usually the most obvious possibility when insects bite people. […]
Mosquitoes, of the family Culicidae, are slim, elegant, 5-6 mm long, grayish midge-like flies. There are also some peaceful midges, which are similar to the mosquito in appearance, for example the non-biting midges or chironomids, which are often seen in large swarms over lakes and bays. Mosquitoes are characterized by the long, thin, flexible proboscis […]
When one has identified a pest species, possibly with the help from the keys, tables and descriptions, the next step is to find out the goods it is likely to attack. In a factory the control of pests will usually require expert assistance. In a house, on the other hand, one can sometimes do it […]
As in so many other situations prevention is better than cure, and a kitchen or store should be built so that conditions are as unfavourable as possible for pests. During the actual construction of a building care should be taken to avoid leaving any cavities or cracks in which dust and scraps of food can […]
In most civilized countries serious attempts are made to control and eradicate rats, and in some places regular inspection of properties is required by law. All means of access should be made secure against rats. Windows should either be completely glazed or fitted with galvanized wire netting with a mesh of 1-2 cm, the wire […]
( Latin: genus Ophion ) These insects lay eggs in moth larvae. The adults often enter houses at night, being attracted by the lights. They have a powerful ovipositor which may be long or quite short, according to the species.
These small hymenopterans belong to a group with a very large number of species. Their larvae live as parasites in other insect species. The female inserts an egg into the victim with the help of her ovipositor, and in some cases this organ can also be used as a defensive weapon. The small dark parasitic […]
Solitary bees (p. 180), honey bees and bumblebees (p. 179) can all sting. The sting of a small solitary bee is normally very mild, but a bumblebee sting may be very painful. On the other hand, it is very unusual for bumblebees to sting and in fact they have to be very severely provoked before […]
A wasp uses its sting for killing prey, but it can also use it very effectively as a defensive weapon. The sting has associated glands which produce venom. A hornet sting can be very painful, but is normally not dangerous, as the amount of venom injected is very small. In some cases, however, people do […]
(Latin: Hippoboscidae) The insects in this family have an unattractive, flat body and a crab-like gait and they cling to their victims with powerful claws. At first sight they do not look very much like flies. They are specialised for living on mammals or birds, where they crawl around in the fur or among the feathers […]
( Latin: Stomoxys calcitrans ) In late summer one often hears people saying that the flies have started to bite. This is not because the ordinary houseflies have suddenly changed their habits. It refers to the activities of the stable fly, which is very similar in appearance to the housefly. It can, however, be distinguished by […]
(Latin: Culex pipiens) This small mosquito does not usually bite humans, but evidently prefers the blood of birds. Its habits are more or less the same as those of the preceding species, and specimens may also be found spending the winter in damp cellars, often in quite large numbers.
(Lat: Culiseta annulata) This is one of two species of mosquito that often occur indoors. It breeds in small bodies of water, and the larva can tolerate water that is somewhat polluted. In fact the larval stages are frequently found in garden ponds, water storage tanks and even in rain butts and blocked gutters. There […]
(Latin: Anopheles maculipennis) This is the malaria mosquito of parts of Europe, including Britain. The larvae live in ponds and lakes with fairly dense vegetation. The indigenous malaria of Britain, commonly known as ague, was transmitted by this insect, and it still occurred in certain coastal districts until about the end of the nineteenth century.
( Latin: genus Aedes ) These insects breed mainly in pools and ditches of the kind that fill up with water in the spring months, but dry up later in the year. They have only one generation in the year, which flies in May, normally at the same time as the beech comes into leaf. Some […]
( Latin: Family Culicidae ) These insects usually spend their whole lives outdoors, but some enter houses in autumn to spend the winter. They may also come in through open windows during summer and if this causes a serious problem, as it does in the tropics, it may be necessary to fit mosquito netting or at […]
( Latin: Anthocoris nemorum ) These are common bugs normally seen outdoors on trees and bushes, where they live by seizing aphids, mites and other small invertebrates, from which they suck the body fluids. They are often seen when one is picking fruit or they may be taken indoors on cut flowers. The proboscis is long and […]
( Latin: , Reduvius personatus ) The larvae of this bug produce a sticky, oily substance, to which dust and debris adhere, so that they become well camouflaged. The adults, on the other hand, are glossy brownish or dull black. They have well developed wings and fly well. The rostrum or proboscis is very short and […]
(Latin: Lyctocoris campestris) This bug also comes from birds’ nests where it lives as a predator on the numerous small invertebrates, such as moth larvae, which feed on the debris that accumulates in the nests. Like the martin bug it may occasionally find its way into the house and may sometimes attack people when they […]
(Latin: Oeciacus hirundinis) This relatively small species is found in the nests of house martins and swallows, and sometimes in those of house sparrows and woodpeckers. It may occasionally be found in a house, particularly after young house martins have left the nest.
( Latin: Cimex columbarius ) Possibly only a subspecies of the common bed bug, and sometimes known as C. lectularius columbarius. It occurs in dovecots and in attics where feral pigeons roost. It is very voracious but fortunately not very common.
( Latin: Cimex pipistrelli ) This species may occur in lofts where bats roost.
(Latin: Cimex lectularius) Unlike most other bugs, the bed bug is wingless. When it has not recently fed its body is paper-thin, and almost red-brown. So far as is known bed bugs originated from Asia, but they have now spread to all parts of the world. They were well known in ancient times in the […]
( Latin: , Hemiptera ) Bugs are insects which, among other features, have powerful, piercing mouth parts. The majority of the species live outdoors and suck the juices of plants, but there are a few which are predatory or parasitic, and of these one has adapted to living indoors.
( Latin: genus Ceratophyllus ) These insects spend the winter in their pupal cocoons in birds’ nests. They emerge in the warmth of the spring sun and if they do not quickly find a bird to suck blood from, they start to move about. In such circumstances they may well enter houses, but one may also […]